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Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

By Prof. Rajeev Gupta, Vikas Soni

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Rs. 207

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Specifications of Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

Book Details

  • 978-81-88870-56-1
  • English
  • 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014
  • Paper Back
  • -

Contents

  • 1. Theory of Errors
    Introduction, Important Terms in Measurement and Their Explanation, Instrument, Measurement, Calibration, True Value, Measured Value, Error, Accuracy, Precision, Repeatability and Reproducibility, Threshold and Noise Floor, Resolution or Discrimination, Hysteresis, “Dead Zone”, “Dead Band” and “Dead Space”, Dead Time, Scale Readability, Range and Span, Over Range, Dynamic Range, Backlash, Drift, Static Sensitivity, Linearity, Loading Effect, Errors in Measurement, Types of Errors, Limiting Error (Guarantee Error) or Limits of Error, Relative (Fractional) Limiting Error, Combination of Quantities with limiting Errors (Combination of Errors), Known Error, Types of Uncertainties, External Estimate of Uncertainty UE, Internal Estimate of Uncertainty UI, Propagation of Uncertainties in Compound Quantities, Statistical Analysis (Modeling of Errors), Arithmetic Mean, Deviation From the Mean, Average Deviation, Standard Deviation, Variance, Normal or Gaussian Curve of Errors, Numerical Problems, Objective Questions, Review Questions.
     
    2. Electronic Instruments for Measuring Basic Parameters
    Introduction, Types of Instruments, Analog Instruments, Digital Instruments, Analog Electronic Voltmeters, Working Principle, Construction, Advantages of Electronic Voltmeter, AC Electronic Voltmeter, Construction and Working, Average Responding AC Electronic Voltmeter, Peak-Responding AC Electronic Voltmeter, True-rms Responding AC Voltmeters, DC Electronic Voltmeter (DC EVM), Direct Coupled DCEVM (Construction & Working), Chopper Stabilized Amplifier Type DCEVM, Differential Amplifier Type of Electronic Voltmeter, Source Follower Type of Electronic Voltmeter, Practical Version of Differential Amplifier Type of Electronic Voltmeter, Practical Version of Source Follower Type of Electronic Voltmeter, Electronic Multimeter, Basic Circuit, Measurement of Resistance by Multimeter (VOM), Digital Voltmeter, Ramp Type DVM, Staire Case Ramp Type DVM, Dual Slope Integrating Type DVM, Continuous Balance (Servo Balance) DVM, Successive-Approximation DVM, Component Measuring Instruments, Measurement of Resistance, Measurement of Capacitance, Measurement of Inductance, Q Meter, Vector Impedance Meter, RF Power and Voltage Measurement, Measurent of Frequency, Digital Frequency Meter (DFM) Basic Principle, Complete Circuit for Measurement of Frequency, Grounding and Shielding, Grounding, The Concept of Earth Ground, Basic Grounding Practice, Shielding, Practical Guidelines, Examples of Shielding, Numerical Problems, Objective Questions, Review Questions, Unsolved Problems.
     
    3. Oscilloscope
    Introduction, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Construction and Working of CRT, Electrostatic Focussing, Electrostatic Deflection, Electromagnetic Deflection, Basic CRO Circuits, Vertical (Y) Deflection System, Horizontal (X) Deflection System, Synchronization, Blanking Circuit, Intensity (Z-axis) Modulation, Position Controls, Focus Control, Intensity Control, Calibration Circuit, Astigmatism, Observation of Waveform On CRO, Oscilloscope Techniques of Measurement, Measurement of Voltage, Measurement of Current, Measurement of Frequency, Measurement of Phase Angle, CRO Probes, Direct Probes, High Impedance Passive Voltage Probe (10 : 1), Resistive Divider Passive Voltage Probe, Active Voltage Probe, Current Probe, Special Oscilloscopes, Multi Input Oscilloscope, Sampling Oscilloscope, Storage Oscilloscopes, Comparison of Analog and Digital Oscilloscope, Applications of CRO, Curve Tracers, Numerical Problems, Objective Questions, Review Questions, Unsolved Problems.
     
    4. Signal Generation and Signal Analysis
    Introduction, Basic Requirements of Signal Generators, Types of Signal Generators, Basic Standard Signal Generators (Sine-Wave Signal Generator), Frequency Synthesized Signal Generators, Sweep Frequency Signal Generator, Special Waveform Generators, Signal Analysis, Wave Analyzers, Frequency Selective Wave Analyzer, Heterodyne Wave Analyzer, Applications of Wave Analyzers, Distortion, Types of Distortion, Harmonic Distortion Analyzers, Tuned Circuit Harmonic Analyzer, Heterodyne Harmonic Analyzer or Wavemeter, Fundamental Suppression Harmonic Distortion Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer, Filter Bank Spectrum Analyzer, Superheterodyne Spectrum Analyzer (Sweep Frequency Spectrum Analyzer), Numerical Problems, Review Questions, Unsolved Problems.
     
    5. Transducers
    Introduction, Exact Definition of the Transducer, Electrical Transducer, Advantages of Electrical Transducers, Classification of Transducers, On the Basis of Transduction Form Used, Primary & Secondary Transducers, Passive and Active Transducers, Analog and Digital Transducers, Transducers and Inverse Transducers, Selection Criteria of the Transducers, Characteristics of Transducers, Input Characteristics, Transfer Characteristics, Transducer Response, Output Characteristics, Basic Construction of Transducer, Resistance Temperature Detector, Working Prnciple of RTD, Construction of RTD, Advantages and Disadvantages, Thermocouple, Working Principle of Thermocouple, Construction of Thermocouple, Types of Thermocouples, Applications of Thermocouple, Advantages and Disadvantages, Comparison between RTD and Thermocouple, Thermistors, Working Principle of Thermistor, Construction of Thermistor, Measurement of Temperature by Thermistor, Applicatons of Thermistors, Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermistor, Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), Construction of LVDT, Working Principle and Working of LVDT, Displacement Measurement by LVDT, Variation In Output Voltage with Linear Displacement for an LVDT, Applications of LVDT, Advantages and Disadvantages, Rotary Variable Differential Transformer, Construction of RVDT, Working Principle and Working of RVDT, Advantages and Disadvantages, Strain Gauge, Working Principle of Strain Gauge, Theory of Strain Gauges, Types of Strain Gauge, Elastic Pressure Transducers, Bourdon Tubes, Bellows, Diaphragm, Seismic Accelerometer, Modes of Operation, Theory of Seismic Accelerometer, Types of Accelerometers, Electromagnetic Tachometer Generators (Tachogenerators), Types of Tachogenerators, Load Cells, Types of Load Cells, Factors for Selection of Load, Piezoelectric Transducers, Piezo-electric Materials, Theory of Piezoelectric Transducer, Modes of Operation of Piezoelectric Crystals, Equivalent Circuit of Piezoelectric Transducers, Loading Effects and Frequency Response, Impulse Response of Piezoelectric Crystals, Applications of Piezoelectric Transducers, Advantages and Disadvantages of Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters, Advantages of Ultrasonic Flowmeters, Numerical Problems, Objective Questions, Review Exercises, Unsolved Problems.
     
    P. Papers