0. Fundamentals of ICs and OP-AMP
Objectives, Introduction, Integrated Circuits (ICs), General Classification of ICs, Based on Fabrication, Based on Applications, Advantages of ICs Over Discrete Components, The Operational Amplifier, Golden Rules of OP-AMP, Block Diagram of OP-AMP, Input Stage, Intermediate Stage, Level Shifting, Output Stage, Equivalent Circuit of OP-AMP, Summary, Review Questions, Multiple Choice Questions.
1. Operational Amplifier
Objectives, Introduction, Basic Differential Amplifier Analysis, Double Ended Differential Amplifiers, Dual-Input, Balanced Output Differential Amplifier, Single-Input, Balanced Output Differential Amplifier, Single Ended Differential Amplifier, Dual-Input, Unbalanced Output Differential Amplifier, Single-Input, Unbalanced Output Differential Amplifier, JFET Differential Amplifier, DC Analysis, AC analysis, Differential Amplifier Using MOSFET, DC Transfer Characteristics, Half Circuit, AC Analysis, Operational-Amplifier Configurations with Feedback, Voltage-Series Feedback Amplifier, Negative Feedback, Closed-Loop Voltage Gain, Difference Input Voltage, Input Resistance with Feedback, Output Resistance with Feedback, Bandwidth with Feedback, Total Output Offset Voltage with Feedback, Voltage Follower, Voltage–Shunt Feedback Amplifier, Closed-Loop Voltage Gain, Inverting Input Terminal at Virtual Ground, Input Resistance with Feedback, Output Resistance with Feedback, Bandwidth with Feedback, Total Output Offset Voltage with Feedback, Current to Voltage Converter, Operational Amplifier Parameters, Input Offset Voltage, Output Offset Voltage, Input Offset Current, Input Bias Current (IB), Differential Input Resistance (Ri), Input Capacitance (Ci), Output Voltage Swing (V0), Large Signal Voltage Gain (A), Slew Rate, Gain Bandwidth Product (GB), Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR), Thermal Drift, Ideal OP-AMP Parameter, The Inverting Amplifier, The Noninverting Amplifier, Comparative Study of Inverting and Noninverting Amplifier, Adder, Comparator, DC Level Shift Stages, Solved Examples, Summary, Review Question, Multiple Choice Questions, University Questions.
2. Operational Amplifier Applications
Objectives, Introduction, The Integrator, Ideal Integrator, Limitation of an Ideal Integrator, Practical Integrator Circuit, Frequency Response, Applications of Integrator, Differentiator, Ideal Differentiator, Limitation of an Ideal Differentiator, Practical Differentiator Circuit, Frequency Response, Applications of Differentiator, Voltage to Frequency (V/F) Converter, Frequency to Voltage (F/V) Converter, PIN Diagram for the 9400, Oscillators, Oscillator Principles, Oscillator Classification, Frequency Stability, Phase Shift Oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator, Quadrature Oscillator, Square Wave Generator, Triangular Wave Generator, Sawtooth Wave Generator, Voltage Controlled Oscillator, Precision Rectifier, Half Wave and Full Wave Rectifier, Half-Wave Rectifier, Full Wave Rectifier, Solved Examples, Summary, Review Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, Answer Key, University Questions.
3. Active Filters
Objectives, Introduction, Classification of Filters, Types of Filter, Low Pass Filter (LPF), First Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter, Second Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter, High Pass Filter, First Order High Pass Butterworth Filter, Second Order High Pass Butterworth Filter, Band Pass Filter, Wide Band Pass Filter, Narrow Band Pass Filter, Band Reject Filter, Wide Band Reject Filter, Narrow Band Reject Filter, All Pass Filter, Switched Capacitor Filter, Realization of Resistor using Switched Capacitor, Switched Capacitor Integrator, Butterworth Filter Design, Chebyshev Filter Design, Solved Examples, Summary, Review Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, University Questions.
4. Linear IC Applications
Objectives, Introduction, Multiplier, Multiplier Characteristics, Temperature Stability, Accuracy, Linearity, Squaring Mode Accuracy, Bandwidth, Feed-Through, Quadrant, Scale Factor(k), Four Quadrant Multiplier, Applications of Multiplier, Voltage Squarer, Frequency Doubler, Voltage Divider, Square Rooter, Phase Angle Detector, Rectifier, Basic Blocks of Linear IC Voltage Regulator, Schmitt Trigger, Schmitt Trigger (Using Op-Amp), Three Terminal Voltage Regulator, Positive Voltage Regulators, LM309 Three Terminal Regulator, LM78XX Three Terminal Regulator, Negative Voltage Regulator, A/D and D/A Converters, A/D Converters, Specification of A/D Converters, Classification of A/D Convertors, Basic D/A Conversion Technique, Specification of D/A Converter, Multivibrator, Classification of Multivibrators, The 555 Timer IC, Important Terminology, Principle of Operation, Pin Configuration, The 555 Timer as Astable Multivibrator, Operation, Applications of Astable Multivibrator, The 555 Timer as Monostable Multivibrator, Operation, Applications of Monostable Multivibrator, Zero Crossing Detector, Gilbert Multiplier Cell, Solved Examples, Summary, Review Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, Answer Key, University Questions.
5. Phase Locked Loop
Objectives, Introduction, Non-Linear Application of Op-Amp, Logarithmic Amplifier, Differential Equations, Analog Computers, Operating Principles of the PLL, Basic PLL Operating Principle, Transient Response of the PLL, Linear Model of PLL, The First Order PLL, The Second Order PLL, Lock Range, Capture Range, Applications of the PLL, PLL as FM Detector, PLL as FSK Demodulator, PLL used in AM Detector, PLL as Frequency Translator, PLL as Phase Shifter, PLL as Tracking Filter, PLL as Signal Synchronizer, PLL as a Frequency Synthesizer, Basic Building Block of PLL, Major Building Blocks of PLL, Analog Phase Detector, Digital Phase Detectors, Filter Circuits, Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO), Transistor Series Voltage Regulator, Controlled Transistor Series Regulator, LM565 PLL, Solved Examples, Summary, Review Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, Answer Key, University Questions.
P. Papers