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Specifications of Optical Communication

Book Details

  • 978-93-80311-93-7
  • English
  • 2014
  • Paper Back
  • -

Contents

  • 1. Introduction to Optical Fiber Communication
    Objectives, Introduction, Evolution of Optical Fiber System, Elements of an Optical Fiber Transmission Link, Advantages of Optical Fiber link over Conventional Copper Systems, Disadvantages of Optical Fiber, Applications of Optical Fiber Transmission Systems, Review Questions.
     
    2. Optical Fibers
    Objectives, Introduction, Basic Optical Laws and Definitions, Refractive Index, Snell’s Law, Total Internal Reflection, Laws of Reflection, Laws of Refraction, Fractional Refractive Index, Acceptance Angle, Principle of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber, Ray Optics Representation, Meridional Rays, Skew Rays, Electromagnetic Mode Theory for Optical Propagation, Modes and Configuration, EM Waves, Modes in Optical Waveguide, V-Number, Modes of Optical Fiber, Characteristics of Single Mode Fibers, Difference between Single Mode and Multimode Fiber, Optical Fiber Configuration, Step Index Fiber, Graded Index Fiber, Comparison of Step Index and Graded Index Fiber, Fiber Materials, Glass Fiber, Halide Glass Fibers, Active Glass Fibers, Chalgenide Glass Fibers, Plastic Optical Fibers, Fiber Fabrication Technique, Liquid Phase (Melting) Method, Vapour Phase Deposition Techniques, Fiber Optic Cables, Cable Structures, Indoor Cable Designs, Outdoor Cables, Signal Degradation in Optical Fibers, Attenuation, Material Absorption Losses in Silica Glass Fiber, Intrinsic Absorption, Extrinsic Absorption, Scattering, Linear Scattering Losses, Non Linear Scattering Losses, Fiber Bend Loss, Dispersion, Intramodal Dispersion, Intermodal Dispersion, Design Optimization of Single Mode Fibers, The 1300 nm-optimized Fibers, Dispersion Shifted Fibers, Dispersion Flattened Fibers, Large Effective Core Area Fibers, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
     
    3. Optical Sources
    Objectives, Introduction, Light Emitting Diode (LEDs), LEDs Structures, Planar LED, Dome LED, SLED-Surface Emitter LED, ELED-Edge Emitter LED, Difference between S-LED and E-LED, Super Luminescent Diode (SLD), LED Materials, Common LED Materials, Requirement of LED Materials, Process in LEDs, Difference Between GaAs Infrared LED and GaAsP Visible LED, Hetero Junction, Double Heterojunction LED, LED Characteristics, Internal Quantum Efficiency, Output Power Characteristic’s of LED, LED Modulation Bandwidth, LED Spectral Width, LED Transient Response, Advantages and Disadvantage of LED, Application of LED, Modulation of a LED, LED Power and Efficiency, Laser Diode, Difference between Laser Light and Ordinary Light, Medium of Laser Light, Laser Fundamental, Absorption of Radiation, Spontaneous Emission, Stimulated Emission, Difference between Spontaneous Emission and Stimulated Emission, Einstein Relations, Population Inversion, Basic Structures of Laser Diode, Gain Guided Laser, Index Guided Laser, Difference between Gain Guided Laser and Index Guided Laser, Fabry Perot Cavity, Quantum Well Laser, Laser Source Noise, Laser Characteristics, Threshold Current Temperature Dependance, Dynamic Response, Frequency Chirp, Noise, Mode Hopping, Laser Diode Modes, Single Mode Laser Diode, Modulation of Laser Diodes, External Modulation, Operational Parameters, Features of Laser Diode as Light Source, Application of LASER, Difference Between LED and LASER Diode, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
     
    4. Optical Detectors
    Objectives, Introduction, Principle of Operation, Types of Photodetectors, Semiconductor Photodiodes without Internal Gain, Semiconductor Photo Diodes with Internal Gain, Difference between p-n, a p-i-n Diode and an APD, Detector Response Time of Photodiode, Depletion Layer Photocurrent, Response Time, Characteristics of Photodetectors, Quantum Efficiency, Responsivity, Cutoff Wavelength (?c), Dark Current (ID), Noise Equivalent Power (NEP), Detectivity (D), Spectral Response, Photodiode Material, Photodetector Noise, Effect of Temperature on Avalanche Gain, Comparison of Photodetectors, Optical Receiver Operation, Pre-amplifier Types, Performance and Sensitivity, Analog Receiver, Digital Receiver Performance, Receiver Noise, The p-n and PIN Photodiode Receiver, Avalanche Photodiode (APD) Receiver, Excess Avalanche Noise Factor, Principle of Coherent Detection, Specification of Receivers, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
     
    5. Optical Fiber Communication Systems
    Objectives, Introduction, Source-to-Fiber Power Coupling, Source O/P Pattern, Power Coupling Calculation, LED Coupling, Laser Diode Coupling, Lensing Schemes for Coupling Improvement, Fiber-to-Fiber Joints, Mechanical Misalignment, Connection Losses Due to Extrinsic Parameter, Fiber end–face Preparation, Splicing Techniques, Introduction to Optical Splices, Fusion Splicing, Mechanical Splicing, Multiple Splices, Optical Fiber Connectors, Cylindrical Ferrule Connectors, Biconical Ferrule Connectors, Duplex and Multifiber Connectors, Expanded-Beam Connectors, Military Connectors, Double Eccentric Connector, Losses in Connector, Single Mode Fiber Connector Losses, Connector Return Loss, Features and Application of Different Types Fiber Connector, Optical Couplers, Optical Splitter, Optical Combiner, X-coupler, Star Coupler, Tree Coupler, Diagram of Different Type Couplers, System Architecture, Point-to-Point Links, System Consideration, Link-Power Budget, Rise-Time Budget, Bit Error Rate(BER) Calculation, Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, RAMAN Amplifier, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Wideband Optical Amplifiers, Optical Switching, Tunable Source, Tunable Filter, Arrayed Wave Guide Grating, Optical Circulator, Wavelength Converter, Multiplexing Techniques, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), Solved Examples, Review Questions.
     
    6. Optical Fiber Measurements
    Objectives, Introduction, Basic Test Equipment, Test Support Lasers, Optical Spectrum Analyzer, Multiple Function Testers, Optical Power Attenuators, Conformance Analyzer, Visual Fault Indicator, Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR), Fiber Attenuation Measurements, Fiber Absorption Loss Measurement, Fiber Scattering Loss Measurement, Fiber Dispersion Measurement, Time Domain Measurement, Frequency Domain Measurement, Fiber Refractive Index Profile Measurements, Fiber Numerical Aperture Measurements, Fiber Diameter Measurements, Outer Diameter, Core Diameter, Eye Pattern, Eye Pattern Features, Eye Diagram Test, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
     
    P. Papers