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- 978-93-80311-65-7
- English
- -
- Paper Back
- -

**1. Theory of Errors**

Objectives, Introduction, Types of Instruments, Accuracy and Precision, Accuracy, Precision, Accuracy versus Precision, Error, Types of Errors, Limits of Error, Probable Errors, Statistical Analysis (Modeling of Errors), Arithmetic Mean, Deviation (D), Average Deviation, Standard Deviation (S.D.), Variance, Probable Error of a Finite Number of Readings, Range, Gaussian Error Curve, Precision Index, Normal Distribution, Combination of Errors, Sum of Two Quantities, Difference of Two Quantities, Sum or Difference of More than Two Quantities, Product of Two Components, Quotient (Division), Product or Quotient of More than Two Quantities, Power of a Factor, Composite Factors, Summary, Review Questions.**2. Transducers**

Objectives, Introduction, Classification of Transducers, On the Basis of Transduction Form Used, Primary and Secondary Transducers, Active and Passive Transducers, Analog and Digital Transducers, Transducers and Inverse Transducers, Construction of Transducers, Characteristics of Transducers, Measurement of Temperature, Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), Thermocouple, Comparison between RTD and Thermocouple, Thermistors, Measurement of Pressure, Bourdon Tubes, Piezoelectric Transducers, Measurement of Displacement, Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), Capacitance Transducers, Strain Gauge, Measurement of Acceleration, Electromagnetic Tachometer Generators (Tachogenerators), Measurement of Acceleration by Piezoelectric, Measurement of Velocity, Measurement of Flow, Measurement of Torque, Criteria for Selecting Transducers, Summary, Review Questions.**3. Signal Conditioning**

Objectives, Introduction, Signal Processing and its Components, Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp), Schematic Symbol of an Op-Amp, Equivalent Circuit of Op-Amp, Electrical Parameters of Op-Amp, Voltage Transfer Curve, Open Loop Configurations of Op-Amp, Basic Op-Amp Applications, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Working of Instrumentation Amplifier, Three Amplifier Configuration, Isolation Amplifiers (Voltage follower), Charge Amplifier, Analog Multipliers, Analog Dividers, Function Generator, Timers, Types of Timers, Sample and Hold Circuits, Electrical Isolators, Frequency to Voltage Converters, Grounding and Shielding, Grounding, Shielding, Summary, Review Questions.**4. Power System Instrumentation-I**

Objectives, Introduction, Measurement of Voltage, Voltmeter, Potentiometer, Oscilloscope, Measurement of Current, Analog Ammeters, Digital Ammeters, Phase Angle Measurement, Condition for Phase Measurement, Applications of Phase Angle Measurements, Measurement of Frequency, Measurement of Power, Blondel’s Theorem, Measurement of Active Power, Measurement of Reactive Power, Measurement of Electrical Energy, Single Phase Induction Type Energy Meter, Polyphase Energy Meters, Three Phase Induction Type Energy Meter (Two Element Energy Meter), Multipart Tariffs, Summary, Review Questions.**5. Power System Instrumentation–II**

Objectives, Introduction to Transformer, Types of Instrument Transformer, Ratios of Instrument Transformers, Burden of an Instrument Transformer, Current Transformer (C.T.), Principle of Current Transformer, Construction of Current Transformer, Measurement and Protective Current Transformer, Difference Between Measurement and Protective C.T., Relationships in a Current Transformer, Characteristics of Current Transformer, Errors in Current Transformer, Minimisation of Errors in Current Transformer, Transient Behaviour of Current Transformer, Potential Transformer (P.T.), Principle of Potential Transformer, Types of Potential Transformers, Relationships in a Potential Transformer, Errors in Potential Transformer, Minimisation of Errors in Potential Transformer, Difference between Current and Potential Transformer, Summary, Review Questions.**P. Paper**