1. Semiconductor Physics
Introduction, Atomic Structure, Energy Levels, The Energy Band Theory of Crystals, Insulator, Metal, Semiconductor, Type of Semiconductors (Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors), Mobility, Conductivity, Hole, Intrinsic Concentration, Forbidden Energy Gap, Types of Dopings, Donor Impurities (or Pentavalent Impurities), Acceptor Impurities (or Trivalent Impurities), Mass Action Law, Charge Densities in a Semiconductor, Fermi–Dirac Distribution, Boltzmann Approximation to the Fermi-Dirac Distribution, Kinetic Energy Distribution of Electron, Carrier Concentration in Semiconductor, Fermi Level (EF), Fermi Level in Extrinsic Semiconductors, Mathematical Expression, Generation and Recombination of Charges, Recombination Centers, Drift, Diffusion, Total Current in a Semiconductor, Einstein Relationship, Continuity Equation, Graded Semiconductors, Continuously Graded Semiconductor, Step Graded Semiconductors, Hall Effect, Diffusion Length (Injected Minority Carriers), Solved Examples, Review Questions.
2. Theory of P–N Junction Diode
Introduction, Open Circuited Junction, Space Charge Region, Variation of Charge Density, Field Intensity and Potential within Depletion Region, The Biased P–N Junction, Volt–Ampere Characteristics, Effect of Temperature on V–I Characteristics, Contact Potential (Vï§), Large Signal Diode Model, Small Signal Diode Models, Junction Diode Switching Times, Diode–Capacitances, Minority Carrier Density Distribution in a Diode, Minority Carrier Density Distribution in a Forward Biased Junction, Minority Carrier Density Distribution in a Reverse Biased Junction, Charge Control Description of a Diode, C-V Characteristics of Diode, Dopant Profile, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
3. Diode Circuits
Introduction, Diode as a Circuit Element, Load Line Concept, Diode Resistances, Clipping Circuits, Clamping Circuits, Voltage Multipliers, Voltage Doubler, Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler, Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV), Rectifiers, Half–Wave Rectifier, Full Wave Rectifier, Ripple Factor, Filters, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
4. Devices and Other Types of Diodes
Introduction, Junction Diode, Zener Diode, Types of Breakdown, Zener Breakdown, Avalanche Break Down (Avalanche Multiplication), Uni Junction Transistor (UJT), Principle of Operation, Characteristics of UJT, Applications of UJT, Photo–Diode, Principle of Operation, V–I Characteristic, Applications, Light Emitting Diode (LED), Construction, Working Principle, Applications, Photo Transistor, Construction, V–I Characteristics, Solar Cell, Construction, Principle of Operation, V–I Characteristics, Conversion Efficiency, Thermistors, Construction, Characteristics, Applications, Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) (or Photo Conductors), Principle of Operation, Critical Wave Length (ï¬C), Characteristics (Spectral Response), Applications, Varactor Diodes (Varicap), Principle of Operation, Equivalent Circuit, Applications, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
5. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
Introduction, Construction, Open Circuited Transistor, Operating Regions, Principle of Operation, Current Components, Current Gains, Alpha (ï¡), Beta (ï¢), Early Effect (Base Width Modulation), Types of Configuration, Common Emitter (CE) Configuration, Common Base (CB) Configuration, Common Collector (CC) Configuration, Transistor Characteristics, Characteristics of Common Emitter (CE) Configuration, Characteristics of Common Base (CB) Configuration, Characteristics of Common Collector (CC) Configuration, Comparison of Different Transistor Configuration, Junction Voltages, Cut-Off Voltage (VBE, cut-off), Cut-In Voltage (VBE, cut-in), Active Voltage (VBE, active), Saturation Voltages (VBE, sat and VCE, sat), Ebers-Moll (EM) Model (BJT as a Diode), D.C. and A.C. Analysis (D.C. and A.C. Models), D.C. and A.C. Analysis of CE Amplifier, D.C. and A.C. Analysis of Common Base (CB) Amplifier, D.C. and A.C. Analysis of Common Collector (CC) Amplifier, Coupling Capacitor (CC), Emitter bypass Capacitor (CE), Operating Point (Q-Point), Load Lines, Biasing of BJT, Types of Biasing, Biasing Linear I.C. using Transistor (Current Mirror), Stabilization, Stability, Stability Factors, Stabilization Technique, Emitter Resistance (RE) Compensation, Diode Compensation, Thermistor Compensation, Sensistor Compensation, Thermal Runaway, Thermal Stability, BJT as a Switch, BJT as an Amplifier, Transistor Ratings, High Frequency Amplifier, Hybrid-ï° Model of CE Transistor, Hybrid-ï° Conductances, Transconductance gm, Hybrid-ï° Capacitances, Relationship Among Hybrid-ï° Parameters and h-Parameters at Low Frequency, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
6. h–Parameters
Introduction, Two Port Circuits, The h–parameters of a Transistor, Analysis of CE Amplifier, Analysis of CE Amplifier with Unbypassed Emitter Resistance RE, Analysis of CC Amplifier, Analysis of CB Amplifier, Interrelationship between h–parameters of Different Configurations, CC and CE Configurations, CE and CB Configuration, Variation of Transistor Parameters (h-Parameters) with Temperature and Current Level, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
7. Field Effect Transistors (FET)
Introduction, Junction FET (JFET), Construction, Working Principle, FET as Ideal Voltage Controlled Current Source, V–I Characteristics of JFET, Output Characteristics (Drain Characteristics), Transfer Characteristics, Thermal Stability of FET, MOSFET, Depletion Type MOSFET (D-MOSFET), V-I Characteristics of D-MOSFET, Enhancement Type MOSFET (E-MOSFET), V–I Characteristics of E-MOSFET, Symbols, Threshold Voltage VT (or VGS(TH)), FET as Voltage Variable Resistor (VVR) [FET as a Resistance], Automatic Gain Control (AGC), Small Signal Models of FET, Transconductance (gm), Drain Resistance (rd), Amplification Factor (μ), Development of Small Signal Model of FET, High Frequency Model of FET, DC Analysis of FET (DC model of FET), DC Analysis of Common Source (CS) Amplifier, DC Analysis of Common Drain (CD) Amplifier, AC Analysis of FET, AC Model of Common Source (CS) Amplifier, AC Model of Common Drain (CD) Amplifier, Biasing of JFET, Biasing Methods for Enhancement Type MOSFET, Types of Configuration, Common Source (CS) Amplifier with Unbypassed RS, Common Source Amplifier with bypassed RS, Common Drain (CD) Amplifier (Source Follower), Load Line, FET as a Switch, FET as an Amplifier, CMOS Devices, CMOS Inverter (NOT Gate), CMOS NAND Gate, CMOS NOR Gate, Parasitic of MOSFET, FET as Active Load, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
8. Small Signal Amplifiers at Low Frequency
Introduction, Cascaded Transistor Amplifier (Multistage Transistor Amplifier), Direct Coupled (DC) Amplifier, Circuit Description, Frequency Response, Applications, RC Coupled Amplifier, Circuit Description, Principle of Operation, Frequency Response, AC Analysis, Mid Frequency Region and Mid Band Gain (Am), Low Frequency Region and Low Frequency Gain, High Frequency Region and High Frequency Gain, Differential Amplifier, Dual Input, Balanced Output Differential Amplifier (Emitter Coupled Differential Amplifier), Miller’s Theorem, Dual of Miller’s Theorem, Darlington Circuits, Boot Strapping, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
9. Sinusoidal Oscillators
Introduction, Classification, Concept of Feedback, Types of Feedback, Voltage Series Feedback, Current Series Feedback, Voltage Shunt Feedback, Current Shunt Feedback, Principle of Operation, Barkhausen Criterion for Sustained Oscillation, Condition for Commencement of Oscillation (Practical Oscillator), Elements of Transistor Oscillator, Tuned Collector Oscillator, Hartley Oscillator, Colpitts Oscillator, R–C Phase Shift Oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator, Crystal Oscillator, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
10. Non Sinusoidal Oscillators
Introduction, Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator using 555 Timer, Astable Multivibrator, Bi–Stable Multivibrator, Schmitt Trigger (Using Transistors), Solved Examples, Review Questions.
11. Feedback Amplifiers
Introduction, Classification of Amplifiers, Voltage Amplifier, Current Amplifier, Transconductance Amplifier, Transresistance Amplifier, Feedback Concept, Transfer Gain with Feedback, Feedback Topology, Voltage-Series Feedback, Current-Series Feedback, Voltage-Shunt Feedback, Current-Shunt Feedback, General Characteristics of Negative Feedback Amplifier, Merits of Negative Feedback, Demerits of Negative Feedback, Input and Output Resistances, Method of Analysis, Analysis of Voltage-Series Feedback, Common-Collector (Emitter Follower) Circuit, Common Drain (Source Follower) Circuit, Analysis of Current-Series Feedback, Common Emitter Amplifier with Unbypassed RE, Common-Source FET with Unbypassed RS, Analysis of Voltage-Shunt Feedback, Analysis of Current-Shunt Feedback, Stability Criterion, Solved Examples, Review Questions.
P. Papers