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Specifications of Engineering Chemistry

Book Details

  • 978-93-83644-28-5
  • English
  • 2017
  • Paper Back
  • -

Contents

  • 1. Water
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Sources of Water
    1.3 Common Impurities of Water
    1.4 Hardness of Water and Its Types
    1.4.1 Types of Hardness
    1.4.2 Degree of Hardness
    1.5 Determination of Hardness of Water
    1.6 Numerical Based on Hardness and EDTA Method 
    1.7 Municipal Water Supply
    1.7.1 Requisites of Potable Water (Water Which is Safe to Drink)/
    Drinking Water
    1.7.2 Purification of Water for Domestic Purposes
    1.8 Break Point Chlorination
    Quick Recap
    Review Questions
     
    2. Water Treatment
    2.1 Introduction
    2.1.1 Lime Soda Process
    2.1.2 Zeolite or Permutit Process
    2.1.3 Ion-Exchange or De-Ionization or De-Mineralization
    Process
    2.2 Boiler Troubles
    2.2.1 Sludge
    2.2.2 Scales
    2.2.3 Boiler Corrosion
    2.2.4 Caustic Embrittlement
    2.2.5 Priming and Foaming
    2.3 Numerical based on Lime Soda Process
    Quick Recap
    Review Questions
    Unsolved Questions
     
    3. Fuels (General Aspects)
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Origin of Fuels
    3.3 Characteristics of a Good Fuel
    3.4 Relative Merits of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels
    3.5 Solid Fuels
    3.5.1 Wood
    3.5.2 Coal
    3.6 Classification of Coal
    3.7 Coke
    3.8 Process of Carbonization
    3.8.1 Types of Carbonization
    3.9 Requisites of a Good Metallurgical Coke
    3.10 Differences between Coal and Coke
    3.11 Manufacture of Metallurgical Coke
    3.11.1 Beehive’s Oven Method
    3.11.2 Otto Hoffmann’s by Product Coke Oven
    3.11.3 Recovery of By-Products
    3.12 Liquid Fuels
    3.12.1 Petroleum
    3.12.2 Important Liquid Fuels
    3.13 Cracking
    3.13.1 Thermal Cracking
    3.13.2 Catalytic Cracking
    3.14 Reforming of Gasoline
    3.14.1 Thermal Reforming
    3.14.2 Catalytic Reforming
    3.14.3 Fixed Bed Catalytic Reforming Process
    3.14.4 Difference between Cracking and Reforming
    3.15 Polymerisation
    3.16 Isomerization of Refinery Products
    3.17 Synthetic Petrol
    3.17.1 Fischer-Tropsch Method
    3.17.2 Bergius Process
    3.18 Knocking
    3.18.1 Octane Number
    3.18.2 Anti-Knock Compounds
    3.19 Gaseous Fuels
    3.19.1 Coal Gas (Coke Oven Gas)
    3.19.2 Oil Gas
    Review Questions
     
    4. Fuels (Analyses)
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Analysis of Coal
    4.2.1 Proximate Analyses
    4.2.2 Ultimate Analyses
    4.3 Calorific Value
    4.3.1 Unit of Heat
    4.4 Higher or Gross Calorific Value (HCV)
    4.5 Lower or Net Calorific Value (LCV)
    4.5.1 Difference between HCV and LCV
    4.6 Determination of Calorific Value of Solid and
    Liquid Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
    4.6.1 Observations and Calculations
    4.6.2 Corrections
    4.7 Determination of Calorific Value of Gaseous
    Fuel by Junker’s Gas Calorimeter
    4.8 Combustion
    4.9 Analysis of Flue Gas by Orsat’s Apparatus
    Solved Examples
    Review Questions
    Numerical Problems
     
    5. Polymers
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Classification of Polymers
    5.3 Types of Polymerization
    5.4 Copolymerization
    5.5 Rubber
    5.6 Natural Rubber
    5.7 Vulcanization
    5.8 Synthetic Rubbers or Elastomers
    5.9 Anionic Addition Polymerisation 
    5.10 Moulding Constituents of Polymers/Plastics
    5.11 Plastics
    5.12 Polyethylene
    5.13 Bakelite (Phenol-formaldehyde resin)
    5.14 Terylene (Polyester)
    5.15 Nylon (Polyamides)
    5.16 Kevlar
    Review Questions
     
    6. Cement
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Cement
    6.3 Classification
    6.3.1 Chemical Composition
    6.4 Portland Cement
    6.4.1 Manufacture of Portland Cement
    6.4.2 Manufacturing Process
    6.5 Manufacturing of Cement by
    Vertical Shaft Kiln (V.S.K.) Technology
    6.5.1 Benefits of Vertical Shaft Kiln Technology
    6.6 Composition of Constitutional Compounds of Cement
    6.7 Setting and Hardening of Cement
    6.7.1 Role of Gypsum
    Review Questions
     
    7. Refractories
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Classification of Refractories
    7.3 Properties of Refractories
    7.3.1 Refractoriness
    7.3.2 Refractoriness-Under-Load (RUL) or Strength
    7.3.3 Dimensional Stability
    7.3.4 Chemical Inertness
    7.3.5 Porosity and Low Density
    7.3.6 Thermal Expansion and Contraction
    7.3.7 Thermal Conductivity
    7.3.8 Thermal Spalling
    7.3.9 Resistance to Corrosion and Erosion
    7.3.10 Electrical Conductivity
    7.3.11 Permeability
    7.3.12 Texture
    7.3.13 Heat Capacity
    7.4 Manufacture of Refractories (Refractory Bricks)
    7.5 Silica and Fire Clay Refractories
    7.6 Fire Clay Bricks
    Review Questions
     
    8. Glass
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Glass
    8.2.1 Composition of Glass
    8.3 Properties
    8.3.1 Physical Properties
    8.3.2 Chemical Properties
    8.4 Raw Materials Used For Manufacture of Glass
    8.5 Manufacturing Steps
    8.6 Types of Glass
    8.7 Optical Fiber
    8.7.1 Optical Grade Fibers and Light Guides
    8.7.2 Multimode Fiber
    8.7.3 Single-Mode Fiber
    Review Questions
     
    9. Lubricants
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Functions of Lubricants
    9.3 Classification of Lubricants
    9.4 Types of Lubrication (Mechanism of Lubrication)
    9.5 Viscosity
    9.5.1 Viscosity Index
    9.5.2 Significance of Vicosity
    9.6 Determination of Viscosity by Redwood Viscometer
    9.7 Flash and Fire Points
    9.8 Cloud Point and Pour Point
    9.9 Emulsification
    Review Questions
     
    10. Corrosion
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Cause of Corrosion
    10.3 Significance of Corrosion for Engineers
    10.4 Types and Mechanism of Corrosion
    10.4.1 Acid or Carbonate Formation
    10.4.2 Dry or Chemical Corrosion Theory
    10.4.3 Electrochemical Theory of Corrosion
    10.5 Galvanic or (Bimetallic) Corrosion
    10.6 Concentration Cell Corrosion
    10.7 Protection Against Corrosion
    10.7.1 Conditioning the Metal
     
    10.7.2 Conditioning the Environment
    10.7.3 Electrochemical Control
    10.8 Distinguish between Galvanizing and Tinning
    10.9 Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion
    10.10 Pitting Corrosion
    10.11 Stress Corrosion
    10.12 Corrosion Reactions
    Quick Recap
    Review Questions
    Pr. Practicals