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Specifications of ENGINEERING PHYSICS

Book Details

  • 978-93-83644-23-0
  • English
  • 2017
  • Paper Back
  • -

Contents

  • 1. Interference
    Objectives 
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Superposition
    1.3 Basics of Interference
    1.3.1 Types of Interference 
    1.3.2 Coherent Sources
    1.3.3 Conditions for Interference of Light
    1.4 Interference by Division of Amplitude 
    1.4.1 Interference in Thin Film Illustrative Examples
    1.4.2 Interference by Wedge Shaped Films
    1.4.3 Types of Fringes Exhibited by Thin Films Illustrative Examples
    1.5 Michelson’s Interferometer
    1.5.1 Formation of Fringes and Shapes of Fringes
    1.5.2 Difference Between Newton’s Rings and Michelson’s Fringes
    1.5.3 Applications of Michelson’s Interferometer Illustrative Examples
    1.6 Application of Interference
    1.6.1 Antireflection (AR) Coatings
    1.6.2 Multilayer Antireflection (AR) Coating
    1.6.3 Dielectric Mirrors
    1.6.4 Interference Filters
    1.6.5 Testing of a Lens Surface Revision at a Glance
    Review Questions Numericals
    2. Polarisation
    Objectives
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Experiment Verifying Polarisation (Optical Method)
    2.3 Some Important Definitions
    2.4 Methods of Production of Polarised Light
    2.4.1 Polarisation by Reflection
    2.4.2 Polarisation by Refraction
    2.4.3 Polarisation by Double Refraction
    2.4.4 Polarisation by Selective Absorption (Dichrosim)
    2.4.5 Polarisation by Scattering
    Illustrative Examples
    2.5 Law of Malus
    2.6 Nicol Prism
    2.6.1 Calcite Crystal
    2.6.2 Principle
    2.6.3 Construction
    2.6.4 Theory 
    2.6.5 Working
    2.6.6 Limitations of Nicol Prism
    2.6.7 Nicol Prism as Polariser and Analyser
    Illustrative Examples
    2.7 Huygen’s Theory of Double Refraction
    2.7.1 Huygen’s Construction of Wavefront 
    2.8 Phase Retardation Plate
    2.8.1 Quarter Wave Plate (QWP)
    2.8.2 Half Wave Plate (HWP)
    2.9 Elliptically and Circularly Polarised Light
    2.9.1 Production of Circularly and Elliptically
    Polarised Light (Theoretical Analysis)
    2.9.2 Theory 
    2.9.3 Speical Cases 
    2.10 Experimental Arrangement to Produce Elliptically and
    Circularly Polarised Light
    Illustrative Examples 
    2.11 Detection and Analysis of Polarised Light
    2.11.1 Action of Rotating Nicol 
    2.11.2 To Distinguish Between Elliptically and Partially
    Polarised Light 
    2.12 Distinction Between Quarter Wave Plate, Plane Glass Plate
    and Half Wave Plate
    Illustrative Examples
    2.13 Optical Activity
    2.13.1 Laws of Optical Activity
    2.13.2 Fresnel’s Explanation of Optical Activity 
    2.13.3 Specific Rotation
    2.14 Polarimeter 
    2.14.1 Construction
    2.14.2 Working
    2.14.3 Laurent’s Half Shade Polarimeter
    2.14.4 Biquartz Polarimeter 
    Illustrative Examples
    Revision at a Glance 
    Review Questions
    Numericals
    3. Diffraction
    Objectives
    3.1 Introduction
    3.1.1 Definition 
    3.1.2 Conditions of Diffraction
    3.1.3 Difference between Interference and Diffraction
    3.1.4 Classification of Diffraction 
    3.2 Fraunhofer’s Diffraction Due to Single Slit 
    3.2.1 Experimental Diagram
    3.2.2 Theory
    3.3 Intensity Distribution of Diffraction Pattern
    3.4 Diffraction Pattern
    3.5 Width of Central Maximum
    3.6 Fraunhofer’s Diffraction at Circular Aperture
    Illustrative Examples
    3.7 Plane Transmission Grating
    3.7.1 Experimental Diagram
    3.7.2 Theory 
    3.7.3 Intensity Distribution
    3.7.4 Diffraction Pattern
    3.8 Formation of Spectra by a Grating
    3.8.1 Characteristics of Grating Spectra
    3.9 Determination of Wavelength of Light by A Plane
    Diffraction Grating
    3.9.1 Theory 
    3.9.2 Adjustments 
    Illustrative Examples 
    3.10 Resolving Power
    3.11 Rayleigh Criteria of Resolution
    3.12 Resolving Power of a Telescope
    3.13 Resolving Power of a Plane Diffraction Grating
    Illustrative Examples 
    Revision at a Glance
    Review Questions
    Numericals
    4. Elements of Material Science 
    Objectives
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Bonding in Solids
    4.2.1 Ionic Bonding
    4.2.2 Covalent Bond
    4.2.3 Metallic Bond
    4.3 Origin of Band Gaps in Solid
    4.4 Classification of a Solid as Insulators, Semiconductors
    and Metals
    4.4.1 Insulators 
    4.4.2 Semiconductors
    4.4.3 Metals
    4.4.4 Difference between Insulators, Semiconductors
    and Conductors
    4.5 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
    4.5.1 Bragg’s Law
    4.5.2 Derivation of Bragg’s Law
    4.5.3 Bragg’s X-ray Spectrometer
    4.6 Hall Effect
    4.6.1 The Quantum Hall Effect
    Revision at a Glance
    Review Questions
    Numericals
    5. Quantum Mechanics
    Objectives
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Blackbody Radiation
    5.2.1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis
    5.3 Photoelectric Effect
    5.3.1 Experimental Set–up to Study Photoelectric Effect
    5.3.2 Experimental Results
    5.3.3 Failure of Classical Theory
    5.3.4 Einstein’s Explanation of Photoelectric Effect
    Illustrative Examples 
    5.4 Compton Effect
    5.4.1 Failure of Classical Theory
    5.4.2 Explanation of Compton Effect by Quantum Theory
    5.4.3 Theory
    5.4.4 Compton Wavelength
    5.4.5 Direction of Recoil Electron 
    5.4.6 Kinetic Energy of Recoil Electron
    5.4.7 Experimental Demonstration
    Illustrative Examples
    5.5 de Broglie’s Hypothesis and Matter Waves
    5.6 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
    5.7 Wave Packets 
    5.7.1 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
    5.8 Physical Significance of Wave Function ()
    5.9 Schrödinger’s Equation
    5.9.1 Time Dependent Schrödinger’s Equation
    5.9.2 Time Independent Schrödinger’s Equation.
    Illustrative Examples
    5.10 Free Particle in a one Dimensional Box 
    Illustrative Examples
    Review Questions 
    Numericals
    6. Coherence and Optical Fibers 
    Objectives
    6.1 Introduction 
    6.2 Temporal Coherence
    6.3 Spatial Coherence 
    6.4 Difference Between Temporal and Spatial Coherence
    6.5 Visibility as a Measure of Coherence
    6.6 Spatial Coherence and Size of the Source
    Illustrative Examples
    6.7 Optical Fibers 
    6.8 Fundamental Definitions and Laws of Optics
    6.9 Basics of Optical Fiber
    6.10 Importance of Optical Fibres
    6.11 Classification of Optical Fibre 
    6.11.1 Step Index Fibre 
    6.11.2 Graded Index Optical Fibre 
    6.12 Acceptance Angle and Numerical Aperture
    Numerical Aperture
    6.13 Light Propagation in Step Index Optical Fiber
    6.13.1 Acceptance Angle and Numerical Aperture 
    6.13.2 Multipath Time Dispersion
    6.14 Light Propagation in Graded Index Optical Fiber
    6.15 Application of Optical Fiber Communication System 
    Illustrative Examples 
    Review Questions
    Numericals 
    7. Lasers and Holography 
    Objectives
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Absorption, Spontaneous and Stimulated
    Emission of Radiation: Einstein Coefficients
    7.2.1 Absorption
    7.2.2 Spontaneous Emission
    7.2.3 Stimulated (Induced) Emission
    7.3 Basic Principle of Laser
    7.4 Ruby Laser 
    7.4.1 Construction
    7.4.2 Working
    7.5 Helium–Neon Laser
    7.5.1 Construction
    7.5.2 Working 
    7.6 Semiconductor Diode Laser
    7.6.1 Construction
    7.6.2 Working
    7.7 Q-Switching 
    7.8 Mode Locking
    7.8.1 Laser Cavity Modes 
    7.9 Characteristics of the Laser Light 
    7.10 Applications of Lasers
    Illustrative Examples
    7.11 Holography
    7.12 Basic Principle of Holography
    7.13 Construction of Hologram
    7.14 Reconstruction of an Image from Hologram
    7.15 Theory of Holography
    7.16 Holography Versus Photography
    7.17 Basic Requirements for Holography and Holographic Laboratory
    7.18 Applications of Holography
    7.18.1 Holographic Interferometry
    7.18.2 Holographic Microscopy
    7.18.3 Acoustic Holography 
    Review Questions 
    Numericals
    Engineering Physics Lab
    Mechelson’s Interferometer 
    Newton’s Rings
    Polarimeter
    Diffraction Grating 
    P-N Junction Diode
    Sextant 
    Dispersive Power
    Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor
    Resolving Power of Telescope
    Laser
    Carey Foster’s Bridge